Category Archives: Business

How to Become an ASPCA Officer

One of the nonprofit organizations in the United States that aims to diminish cases of animal cruelty in the country, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) hires officers who are responsible of ensuring that animals are not mistreated and abused. To know how to become an ASPCA officer, interested people should have understanding on the trainings that the organizations require them to finish. In addition, it is important that they know the requirements that applicants should submit to be considered or to be qualified for this position.

Requirements for the Position

To become an ASPCA officer, applicants should possess skills that are very important to the job. The organization requires applicants to have sufficient background on law enforcement as well as animal welfare and animal care. To be considered for the position, applicants should present a high school diploma and a birth certificate. The position is only open to 21 years old and above. Finally, applicants should be a certified resident of the state of New York.


Interested individuals can visit the web site of the American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals if they want to become an ASPCA officer. The site provides instructions on how applicants can submit their resumes online. Applicants are reminded to attach a cover letter to the resume. The cover letter must contain information on their accomplishments that will be helpful in doing the responsibilities of an ASPCA officer. In addition, applicants should include contact information on the resume so the organization can reach them if they are being considered for the job.

Benefits and Trainings

The duties and responsibilities of an ASPCA officer are not easy. During the first year of ASPCA officers, they need to undergo trainings that are important to enhance their investigative skills and knowledge on animal handling. In addition, they must finish trainings that can improve their knowledge on firearms handling. When all the trainings were completed, they need to pass a series of examinations that would test their ability to solve complaints and cases related to animal abuse and animal cruelty. The exams will also assess their knowledge on writing and filing detailed reports. Above all, an exam on firearms handling will be given to them before they finish the probation period.

The duties of an ASPCA officer are difficult. To inspire and motivate the officer, the position has an average annual salary of $45,000. Aside from this, the organization assures that the officer has medical, dental and vision insurances.

How to Become a Surgeon

Being a surgeon opens great career opportunities to excellent doctors. To those who want to know how to become a surgeon, there are some requirements that they need to satisfy such as enrolling in medical schools and residency programs.

This is a medical profession that offers rewarding and beneficial career opportunities to outstanding and excellent doctors. To specialize in the field of surgery, there are some important requirements to be completed or satisfied. Discussed below are the steps that people should follow if they want to know how to become a surgeon.

Undergraduate Degree

The first step to become a reputable and registered surgeon is to obtain a four-year undergraduate degree in any university. To increase the chances of being accepted in an outstanding and leading medical school, it is necessary to maintain high grades. In addition, students who want to become surgeons should enroll in courses that are related to medicine such as physics, organic chemistry as well as biology. Aside from these, they are required to take courses in social sciences and humanities. To have advantages over other undergraduate students, participate in extracurricular activities like medical and dental missions.

Medical School

After obtaining a four-year degree in university, submit applications and requirements to medical schools. Some of the important requirements that these schools usually ask from applicants are transcripts and recommendation letters. Additionally, applicants should pass the medical college admission examinations administered by the schools where they want to enroll. As they enroll in medical schools, always remember to register in these courses, medical ethics and laws, physiology, microbiology, pathology and pharmacology.

Residency Program

As they graduate from medical schools, doctors should be accepted in a hospital that offers residency programs for future surgeons. In order to qualify in these programs, physicians should pass at least one licensure examination. Depending on the medical fields that doctors want to specialize, they need to finish the residency program within six to eight years. During their stays in the hospital, doctors should take rotations in shifts. Moreover, they need to be patient, diligent and hardworking. It is important that they pay attention to the different medical cases that they will handle.

Board Examination

After completing the residency program, doctors should allot time to review concepts, topics and lessons related to the field of surgery since they need to take board certification examinations. They will only be considered as licensed or registered surgeons if they pass these exams. Afterwards, surgeons can start applying in medical centers or hospitals. To increase the chances of being hired, it is best to submit a job application form or resume to the hospital where one finished or completed the residency program. Furthermore, registered surgeons can also open their own clinics and practice their profession privately.

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How to Become a Barber

To become a barber requires hard work and patience. To know how to become a barber, it is important to have ample experience of the duties and tasks performed by people who practice the profession. In addition, it is important that you finish a course at barber school as well as pass a licensure exam to become a barber.

Being a barber is not easy and the profession requires people to be hardworking and diligent. To know how to become a barber, it is important to have a first-hand experience of the job. In addition, there are some requirements that you need to satisfy in order to be hired at local barbershops.

Knowing the Duties of a Barber

To have ideas about the duties of a barber, you should visit a local barbershop and spend some time with the barbers working in the place. In this way, you can have a first-hand experience of their tasks and duties. By spending time with them, you can decide whether this profession is really for you.

Basic Requirements

The basic requirements for being a barber include a formal study at barber schools. Aside from this, it is necessary that you spend supervised hours in a barbershop. After satisfying these requirements, you need to obtain a license to do the job.

Finding a Barber School

There are some factors that you need to consider when looking for the right barber school. First, be sure that the school offers the trainings that are important to satisfy the requirements for licensure. If you have doubts about this matter, it is best to consult with other professional barbers or with the licensing official in the area.

Second, evaluate the program offered by a school. It is important that you look for a school that offers financial grants if you want to become a full-time student. However, if you plan to maintain your present job, enroll in a school that has flexible time options. Third, ask the administrator of the school if the institute offers specialties and advanced programs in case you want to specialize. Finally, look for schools that offer placement programs to students who will be able to finish or complete the basic barber training.

Getting the First Job

To get a job, it is important that you pass an examination to become a licensed barber. Afterwards, visit the owners of local barbershops if they still have available position for you. Another way to get your first job as a barber is by looking at classified advertisements. Aside from these, you can also surf the Internet if there are openings for barbers in your area. As soon as you get enough experience, you can open your own barbershop and start a private practice of the profession.

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How to Write a Formal Letter

It is easy to write a formal letter. You just have to follow a standard layout. There are several formal letter layouts, but it is a good idea to follow the most common one. Below are the pieces of information included in the layout of a formal letter.

  • Your address – Place this at the top right-hand corner of the letter.
  • The address of the person you are writing to – write this on the left below your address.
  • Date – Write this below the address of the person. The date should be on the right.
  • The salutation – You can use “Dear Sir” or Dear Madam” depending of course on the person you are writing to.
  • The body of the letter – Here is where you will place what you want to say.
  • Signing off – You can use “Yours sincerely” or other variations.
  • Your name – Place your full name under your signature.

The body of the letter is its most important part. Always try to keep it short. In your first paragraph, write the reason why you are writing to the person. Add the necessary details in the second paragraph, and state what you would like the individual to do after reading the letter. You can also use two paragraphs instead of three, if you can make your message more concise.

Remember to organize your thoughts in a logical manner to make your message very clear. Avoid using contractions. The accepted abbreviations used in formal letters include the following:

  • ASAP – As soon as possible
  • Enc. – This stands for “enclosure”. Use this when you include other documents along with your letter.
  • PS – postscript

How to Write a Professional Letter

Being able to write your own professional letters will literally open doors for you.

Kinds of Professional Letters

  1. A Letter of Inquiry asks for information about an organization, a specific job opening, or other matters which you need to know in your job search. While the purpose of the letter is to get information, it is appropriate to introduce yourself briefly.
  2. The Letter of Application is the cover letter which should accompany the resume you submit for a job application. In this letter, you summarize the skills, education and experience you have which makes you qualified for the job.
  3. A Pre-Interview and Pre-Screening Letter is similar to a letter of application. It is sent for the purpose of securing an interview with a prospective employer. Enclose your resume with the letter.
  4. It is good to respond with an Interview Confirmation Letter when your request for an interview is granted. You can show your appreciation for the employer’s review of your qualifications, and confirm the arrangements for the interview.
  5. Sending a Post Interview Thank You Letter immediately after the interview will show the employers your interest and remind them of your qualifications for the job.
  6. In a Job Offer Clarification or Acknowledgment Letter, you can make relevant inquiries from the employer if a job offer has been extended. Even if you do not intend to accept the job, an acknowledgment letter shows your professionalism.
  7. A Job Offer Acceptance Letter confirms your acceptance of the job. You should restate the terms of the appointment, starting date, job title, and other pertinent information.
  8. A Job Offer Refusal Letter should be sent only after a telephone conversation where you have declined the job offer. This is a professional courtesy which you should do with tact and appreciation. Remember, you may still apply for a job with them in the future.

Parts of a professional letter

  1. The return address and the current date needs to be placed at the beginning of the letter.
  2. The address of the employer should be written at the left margin above the salutation.
  3. The salutation is the formal greeting of the letter. You can use Dear Mr. or Dear Ms. followed by the person’s last name. Punctuate with a colon (:) or a comma (,).
  4. The body of the letter should be three to five paragraphs long. Be brief and concise in stating your message.
  5. The closing follows the body of the letter.  You can use formal closings such as “Sincerely”, “Respectfully yours”
  6. Your signature should be written in blue or black ink over your typed name.
  7. If you have an attachment (your resume or transcript of records), put Enclosure at the left margin and enumerate the name(s) of the document(s) enclosed.

How to Write a Business Letter

Learning how to write business letters can help you gain more associates and increase your chance of succeeding in any business venture.

Steps to Write a Business Letter

  1. At the top of the letter, place the name, position, and address of the person you are writing to.
  2. Leave two spaces and write the date. An alternative is to write the date two spaces above the name of the addressee.
  3. Leave two spaces and write the salutation. You can use Mr. for men and Ms. for women. If the person has a specific designation such as a doctor, you need to use the appropriate title.
  4. At the first paragraph of the body of the letter, state your reason for writing.
  5. At the second paragraph, state any request you may have, or any action you wish the person would take.
  6. Close the body of the letter by thanking the person.
  7. After the body, use a closing statement such as “Yours faithfully”.
  8. Leave four spaces and write your full name, and below it your title.
  9. Place your signature between the closing statement and your name.

Here are a few things to remember while writing a business letter.

  • Generally, you should use block style, and avoid indenting the paragraphs.
  • Immediately state your reason for writing. Do not make long introductions and unnecessary remarks. Avoid using shortened verb forms. For instance, use “will not” instead of “won’t”.
  • Keep your letter neat. If you are using a pen to write it, make sure that the pen is writing smoothly. If you are using a computer to type and print the letter, ensure that the ink of the printer is in good condition.
  • How to Write an Autobiography

    An autobiography is a written account of the series of events in the life of the writer himself. If you want to write your autobiography, you can follow a set of procedures to accomplish this task easily.

    Steps to Write an Autobiography

    1. Determine Your Goal
      • Determine your goal for writing your autobiography. The most common reason for writing an autobiography is to let the readers know the writer.
      • A secondary reason of the writer is to tell the readers what life means to him/her and how he/she sees the future. Consider these goals while you make your plan.

    2. Make an Outline
      • Make an outline of your work. Like any other composition, autobiographies need to have a logical structure and organization of thoughts. You can use the major parts of your life as the main outline headings, and the minor parts as the supporting ideas.

        Start your outline by listing down the basic facts about yourself. This will serve as your introduction. These pieces of information include your name, the place where you were born, your birthday, and the city or state where you live.

        Then you can move to the next main topic. Here you can list down the earliest most important events in your life you can still recall. Under each event, try to include details and make them your supporting ideas. Do the same with the succeeding parts of your life.

    3. Actual Writing
      • You can write your actual autobiography once you are done with your outline. From each heading and supporting idea, form the complete thoughts you wish to express. Just keep on writing and do not worry about any mistakes you might make.
      • You should try to be as honest as possible. Avoid making exaggerations of past events. Your readers will be able to see whether or not you are sincere with what you are saying. Also, try to avoid using very complex sentences. These might confuse your readers and make it difficult for them to understand your ideas.

    4. Write the Conclusion
      • When you have written the entire series of events in your life, you can then make a conclusion. You could make the conclusion while writing the outline. But you can also write it after finishing the autobiography. In your conclusion, you can tell the readers how you see yourself in the future.

    5. Editing and Proofreading
      • Finally, your biography is ready for editing and proofreading. You can edit your own work, but it will be best if someone else will do it for you. Proofreading should also be done by another person.

    How to Interview

    You may need to conduct an interview for a research project or as part of your job. The purpose of the interview should be clear. You should know what information you need to get from the interviewees.

    A Guide to Conducting an Interview

    1. The preparation process is as important as the actual conducting of the interview. Prepare the interview guide or questionnaire, a list of the necessary questions to ask.
    2. Identify the persons who will be respondents, or the source of information. Set up an appointment with your respondents. Consult them about the date, time, and place of interview. Tell them how long the interview is expected to last.
    3. Some respondents would want a list of questions ahead of time so that they can prepare the needed information. Send them a list of your questions. If you are planning to record the interview, ask their permission first.
    4. If you are interviewing a public official or somebody with a designation, you may want to call the office or the persons involved before the interview day. This ensures that everyone remembers the details of the appointment.
    5. Before you go to the actual interview, place your questions and other paraphernalia, like a tape recorder, pen, and notebook in one bag or briefcase. You may want to organize your things the night before the interview. Packing things in a briefcase (or may be laptop case) gives you a neat, organized, and professional look.
    6. Prepare yourself for the interview. Eat a good meal that will provide you energy for the task ahead. Dress neatly.
    7. Arrive on time. Consider the traffic flow and the weather. When you meet the interviewee, shake hands and introduce yourself. Explain the purpose of interview. Start with a conversation and do not go directly into your questions. Establish rapport with your interviewee first to make him or her feel comfortable in having a conversation with you.
    8. If your interviewee agreed to the use of the tape recorder, keep it on throughout the interview, but jot down important things that were said. Listen to your interviewee. Let your subject talk and don’t be so fast to butt in with more questions. Wait for a pause before giving your next question.
    9. Follow your list of questions, but let the conversation guide your line of questioning. Make follow up questions as needed.
    10. When the interview is over, don’t fail to shake hands with and thank the interviewee for his/her time and effort.

    How to Write a Reference Letter

    Ask for information about the person who requested you to make a character reference. Get a copy of his resume, and try to learn what he does outside the workplace, the organizations he is involved in, and his hobbies. Knowing these should give you an idea of the holistic development of the person and the skills you probably didn’t know he had.

    Also, ask for information about the job the person is applying for. Having knowledge of the responsibilities and values the job entails will help you evaluate if he is qualified for the job.

    Address the letter as personal as possible, so that means you would also have to ask for the name of the prospective employer. While writing “To whom it may concern” is not a mortal sin, a personalized heading would make a more powerful impression to the employer.

    Verify that the individual has worked for you. Include the range of dates he was employed and probably his salary. Explain the person’s job description in your company and the tasks he performed. Specify the length of you relationship and in what capacity, as well as how that relationship makes you eligible and credible to write a reference on his behalf.

    Justify what you think qualifies the person for a particular position. If the person was an asset to the company, do not hesitate to mention it. Back up your words with specific examples. Keep comments toned down. A reference letter is one where if you don’t have anything good to say about the person, you can say nothing at all.

    Comprehensively discuss the person’s positive attributes. Choose words carefully. Using too many glowing terms about the person makes prospective employers doubt the legitimacy of your recommendation. Don’t use the adjectives “nice”, “good”, and “satisfactory”. Don’t suggest a sense of confidence in the person.

    Emphasize a variety of traits deemed necessary to employers. Highlight the person’s leadership, versatility, dynamism, ability to communicate, and his self-confidence.

    Close the letter by offering to give further information if necessary. Provide information on how the prospective company can contact you. Make sure the letter is typed and proofread.

    How to Get a Book Published

    To get a book published, you have to learn as much as you can about publishing. Conduct interviews with publishing companies. You may even choose to do volunteer work in a publishing company. Your success rate would increase as you become more and more aware of how the system of publishing works.

    1. Do market research. Find out how books within the genre you are focused on are doing in the market. By doing so, you would know your audience and what they want..
    2. Write the book. Here you will learn more about the subject you have chosen. Do not rush this process. Try to entertain the possibility that you would encounter an unexpected direction. Do not worry too much about whether it is good enough.
    3. Rewrite your work. Try to spend a few days away from your work then read it again. Look for parts which you would like to correct or modify. Find a trusted friend who would comment on your work. Give special attention to the first few pages of your manuscript. These pages are the ones that could capture the editor’s attention, or could dissuade him from reading the entire book.
    4. Find a publisher. You may have an idea where to go to after doing your market research. Aside from these prospective publishers, you should try to find more publishing companies.
    5. Write a query letter. This letter should be short and should contain your intention to have your book read by the publisher.
    6. If the publisher responds positively to your letter, you can then submit your manuscript to the company. Attach a brief cover letter at the beginning of the manuscript. In this letter, you should state why the publisher is right for your work. Remember to put page numbers in each page.
    7. Make follow-ups. Wait for around three to four months and call the publisher and kindly ask for a progress report on the possible approval of your manuscript.