Natural diamonds are shaped deep under the surface of the earth. It is made up of pure carbon that has been under extreme pressure for million of years. The intense heat found beneath the earth’s surface, which is about 1100-1400 degrees Celsius, had hardened the carbon.
Diamonds are made of the same substance that makes coal and pencils. The difference lies in the way their molecules are arranged. A diamond’s molecules are arranged tightly; this is what makes it very hard. The more carbon is exposed to very high pressure and extreme temperatures, the harder the diamond becomes.
The diamond’s color is due to substances and gases like nitrogen and sulphur. Diamonds are colorless, but there are instances when they are orange, green, or pink.
Rare natural diamonds are found more than a hundred miles below the earth’s surface. That is also why they are very expensive. Fortunately, man has already found a way to create artificial diamonds, which are easier and faster to produce. Unlike with natural diamonds, people do not have to wait for so many years. However, when it comes to quality and beauty, nothing compares to the natural diamond.
With scientific experiments, scientists have successfully created precious gems, which are as hard as diamond, from a gas mixture. The following are the steps taken in the chemical vapor disposition process used to transform crystals into diamonds.
- Crystals are put in a chamber with a very high temperature and pressure. This process hardens the crystals similar to the way they are hardened underneath the earth’s surface.
- Fire is used to open gases like methane and hydrogen in a special chamber charged with particles or plasma.
- The plasma will cause a chemical reaction on the occurrence of carbon rain that falls on the seed in the chamber.
- When the carbon rain comes into contact with the seed, the atoms will start to group themselves in a structure similar to that of the seed.
Using this process, you can produce diamonds up to 4.5 centimeters thick and 100 millimeters wide.